Karapetsas G., Tsamopoulos J.
The transient, axisymmetric squeezing of viscoplastic materials under creeping flow conditions is examined. The flow of the material even outside the disks is followed. Both cases of the disks moving with constant velocity or under constant force are studied. This time-dependent simulation of squeeze flow is performed for such materials in order to determine very accurately the evolution of the force or the velocity, respectively, and the distinct differences between these two experiments, the highly deforming shape and position of all the interfaces, the effect of possible slip on the disk surface, especially when the slip coefficient is not constant, and the effect of gravity. All these are impossible under the quasi-steady state condition used up to now. The exponential constitutive model, suggested by Papanastasiou, is employed. The governing equations are solved numerically by coupling the mixed finite element method with a quasi-elliptic mesh generation scheme in order to follow the large deformations of the free surface of the fluid. As the Bingham number increases, large departures from the corresponding Newtonian solution are found. When the disks are moving with constant velocity, unyielded material arises only around the two centers of the disks verifying previous works in which quasi-steady state conditions were assumed. The size of the unyielded region increases with the Bingham number, but decreases as time passes and the two disks approach each other. Their size also decreases as the slip velocity or the slip length along the disk wall increase. The force that must be applied on the disks in order to maintain their constant velocity increases significantly with the Bingham number and time and provides a first method to calculate the yield stress. On the other hand, when a constant force is applied on the disks, they slow down until they finally stop, because all the material between them becomes unyielded. The final location of the disk and the time when it stops provide another, probably easier, method to deduce the yield stress of the fluid. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Free surface flows, Transient squeeze flow, Viscoplastic fluids